For all videos with sound, either edit the audio track so that it includes audio description, or provide a descriptive transcript, a descriptive audio track, or the description in the surrounding text.
If you need to meet Level AA standards for your eLearning resources, there is an additional AA standard – 1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded) (Level AA) which refers to audio description. This standard says that you must provide audio description for videos, i.e. that it is not enough to provide just a transcript.
How do I comply?
Provide one of the following for any prerecorded videos with sound in your eLearning resource:
- Descriptive transcript
Add a transcript to your eLearning resource which is easy for the learner to find. It should include all words spoken in the video, as well as a description of any other relevant content such as the actions and expressions of characters, background noises, laughter and who is speaking etc. If the video has any interaction in it – e.g. “Select now to answer the question.”, then the transcript should provide the same functionality e.g. with a hyperlink.
Remember that the transcript you add must itself be accessible.
Find eLaHub links to further guidance on making documents accessible at Accessible documents useful links.
If the video is a “talking head” video i.e. it only contains one character speaking directly to the camera, it is unlikely that you will need to provide audio description. This is because there is no additional action or information that you need to describe. In this case, a standard transcript of the words spoken in the video should be enough.
- Descriptive audio track
This would be an audio track which contains the same information as you would provide in a descriptive transcript. As with a descriptive transcript, it should also be easy for the learner to find.
- Audio description in the video
Edit the audio track for your videos, so that you can add audio description. This means that in the pauses in the dialogue, you can add description of any other relevant content. This could include the actions and expressions of characters, scene changes, background noises, laughter and off-screen voices etc.
- Description in the surrounding text
If the video contains the same information that is already provided in the surrounding text, you do not need to provide a transcript, descriptive audio track, or audio description. This is because the text already provides the description of the video.
- Learners who are blind or have low vision will be able to hear the dialogue or narration in a video. They won’t be able to fully understand what is happening, however, without additional descriptive information such as who is speaking, what is taking place in the background etc.
- If you provide a descriptive transcript, someone who is blind or has low vision, can use a screen reader to read this out, or convert it to braille if they are deafblind.
- Transcripts can also be useful for learners with a cognitive impairment who may prefer to read rather than listen to content, or for second language learners.
1. Descriptive transcript
Some tools will prompt you to automatically add a transcript for any videos e.g. CourseArc. Other tools allow you to manually add transcripts to your resource. It is up to you to make sure that the transcript is descriptive.
Video with transcript
Video with transcript
2. Audio description
You can edit the audio track for your video to add audio description. This is done by adding any description in the pauses in the action or narration.
Microsoft Inclusive Design SME series featuring Haben Girma
How can I test?
Watch each of the videos in your eLearning resource, and then play them again but only listen to the sound. Make sure that you get the same information as a sighted learner by using one of the techniques described above.
- WebAIM: guide to transcripts
A brief explanation of transcripts and why they are useful.
UiAccess: Guide to transcripts on the Web
Provides best practice guidelines and information on creating transcripts.
3Play Media: Ultimate guide to audio description
Comprehensive guide to everything you need to know about audio description.
- 3Play Media: Intro to audio description webinar
Sign up to access this webinar.
- WebAIM: Guide to audio description
A brief explanation of audio description.
- University of Southampton: Accessible Audio-visual Media video explainer
Overview of captioning, transcripts, audio description, sign language etc.
|Guideline||1.2 Time based media|
Provide alternatives for time-based media
|WCAG link||1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded) (Level A)|
|WCAG text||An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.|
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